What is WFP's approach towards smallholder farmers in Southern Africa?

Value Chain Development for Smallholders

WFP support to smallholder farmers in Southern Africa: 

● disseminating climate and crop information to enable farmers to make better decisions

● facilitating nutrition sensitive behaviour change distributing resilient seeds and building farmers' capacity in innovative farming practices 

● organising farmers support groups to improve their access to information and systems

● training farmers in post harvest handling to reduce losses

● distributing low cost storage solutions such as hermetic bags to reduce post harvest losses procuring produce from smallholder farmers for WFP food assistance programmes 

● providing market access through innovative means such as online farmers markets or creating linkages with private sector and schools

● creating assets (such as roads, market infrastructure etc.) to enhance farmers' resilience 

Source: Smallholder Farmers in Southern Africa

How does WFP support SSTC?

International Engagement

Governments and national stakeholders are at the forefront of SSTC. Upon demand, WFP supports governments to tap into SSTC to achieve their own national priorities in food security and nutrition. Some of the areas in which WFP supported governments by brokering SSTC include smallholder farmers support, school feeding, emergency preparedness and response, nutrition, etc.

To do so, WFP leverages SSTC across its work at the policy, programme and operational levels, ensuring coherence across all three. Governments and national stakeholders engaging in South-South exchanges brokered by WFP tap into the wealth of knowledge and expertise from countries in the Global South benefiting from a wide range of services including:

● Effective knowledge management and support with evident generation

● Seed funding support for SSTC project

● Technical assistance in thematic areas under WFP’s scope

● Operational support for piloting SSTC project in the field 

Source: 2021-2022 Overview of WFP's Initiatives on South-South and Triangular Cooperation

Why does WFP facilitate SSTC?

International Engagement

WFP faces the challenge of a world that is not moving towards but away from zero hunger.

New wars and unresolved conflicts, the global climate crisis and recurrent economic shocks – including the economic turmoil triggered by the COVID-19 pandemic – are driving this downward spiral.

Working in partnerships is the only way to augment revert this trend of increasing food insecurity and malnutrition.

SSTC offers an opportunity for WFP to bring more partners onboard and unlock the knowledge and solutions available in the Global South to tackle food insecurity and malnutrition.

Strengthening national capacity and systems presents opportunities for scale, impact and sustainability, helping to reach the increasing number of people who are food insecure and unable to afford healthy diets.

SSTC is a key pillar in WFP’s efforts to strengthen national systems and programmes in countries from the Global South, as well as to mobilize new resources and local innovations to achieve Agenda 2030.

Source: 2021-2022 Overview of WFP's Initiatives on South-South and Triangular Cooperation

What is triangular cooperation?

International Engagement

Triangular development cooperation (triangular cooperation in short) involves a division of labor between three or more partners, with some of them playing the role of enabler (through financial contributions, convening power, technical support), others the role of provider or contributor (through technical assistance, capacity building, training), and still others the role of associate (as a beneficiary of programs, projects, events). The roles of enabler, provider and associate may change over time in a given initiative, or from one triangular cooperation initiative to another, as participants employ fully their differing comparative advantages.

This basic tripartite structure accommodates a growing diversity of actors. The enabler partner in triangular cooperation may be a northern organization (government agency, private foundation, civil society organization), an international financial institution (multilateral development bank, special funds), a civil society or philanthropic organization operating at the international level (international non-governmental organization, private foundation), or another developing country agency at the national or subnational level with capabilities to play a supranational facilitating role. The provider / contributor and associate partners are developing country government institutions or subnational agencies, private, civil society, philanthropic or academic entities.)

Source: Promoting sustainable development through triangular cooperation

What is South-South and Triangular Cooperation?

International Engagement

South–South Cooperation (SSC) refers to a broad framework of collaboration between developing countries. This usually involves a learning process or transfer of knowledge, experience, training, technology, financial and monetary cooperation or in-kind contributions between two or more countries of the Global South.

When donor countries and/or multilateral organizations help facilitate South-South exchanges, this form of cooperation is called Triangular Cooperation (herein SSTC). WFP is recognized as a triangular partner as soon as it engages in supporting South-South initiatives.

WFP facilitates effective, results-oriented, and demand-driven SSTC to support country-led efforts towards achieving Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 2 and SDG 17 with a focus on the most vulnerable and food insecure populations.

In doing so, WFP aims to contribute to strengthening host governments’ national abilities and independence to drive their own development process and leverages multi-stakeholder partnerships to promote food security, improve nutrition and strengthen resilience.

How should provisions covering the management of relevant records be understood?

PHLM & Food Systems

Article 11 of China's “Administrative Measures for the Storage of Government Grain Reserves” dictates: “Organizations engaged in reserve storage should maintain records related to their affairs and their storage and logistics facilities in line with relevant regulations and fulfil the obligation of the government to safeguard reserve storage and logistics facilities.”

This section of the document emphasizes that records should be kept “in line with relevant regulations” and is mostly based on information related to the following points from the “Measures for the Administration of Grain and Oil Storage”:

“Organizations engaged in grain and oil storage should file records with the local grain administration department within 30 working days from the date of commencement of grain and oil storage activities. The records should include their name, address, legal representative, main type of storage business, storage capacity and other relevant information.”

The “Measures for the Protection of State-Owned Grain and Oil Storage and Logistics Facilities” state: “Organizations engaging in grain and oil storage should file a statement with information about their grain and oil storage and logistics facilities with the local grain administration department within 30 working days of the day they commence such activities in accordance with the law. Changes in the scale and utilization of grain and oil storage and logistics facilities should also be filed in a timely manner.”

These provisions dictate that organizations engaged in government reserve storage shall implement record management requirements that include information about themselves, their storage and logistics facilities, and any changes in scale and utilization that may occur. Effectively fulfilling the government’s obligation to safeguard reserve storage and logistics facilities is an important aspect of provincial-level administrative areas’ governors’ food security responsibility systems’ assessments.

How should regulations related to sources of pollution and other hazards be understood?

PHLM & Food Systems

Article 12 of China's “Administrative Measures for the Storage of Government Grain Reserves” stipulates: “No sources of pollution or other hazards that threaten the food security of a storage facility should exist within a specified range around a storage area, and no new premises or facilities that negatively affect normal storage shall be established.”

The “specified range” of “sources of pollution and other hazards” refers to the information contained in the “Regulations on the Safe Distance of Sources of Pollution and Other Hazards” section of the “Measures for the Administration of Grain and Oil Storage” document. It states that storage facilities must be located no less than 1,000 m from mines and other facilities with harmful elements, such as coking, oil refining, gas, chemical (producing toxic compounds or byproducts), plastic, rubber processing and production, artificial fibre, paint, and pesticide and fertilizer facilities; no less than 500 m from slaughterhouses, centralized waste dumps, and sewage treatment stations; and no less than 100 m from sources of dust pollution, such as factories that produce brick, tile, concrete and gypsum products.

“No new premise or facilities that negatively affect normal storage shall be established” indicates that no new premises that affect the safe storage of government reserves or threaten the safety of related facilities shall be established in the storage area of the grain storage facility and that new facilities within specified range around the storage facility must not contain the “sources of pollution and other hazards” specified above if a grain storage facility is already standing.

How should regulations covering technical storage capacity be understood?

PHLM & Food Systems

Article 20 of China's “Administrative Measures for the Storage of Government Grain Reserves” states:“ The storage conditions of organizations engaged in reserve storage should support the temperature-controlled storage of government reserves, and have the ability to achieve low temperature or quasi-low temperature storage. Technically, it can be safely stored for an additional year beyond normal storage duration.”

This article covers technical storage capacity. It is not related to the amount of time government grain reserves are stored and associated regulations and is, therefore, not directly connected to rotation cycles based on storage quality and normal storage life. Organizations that store government reserves are required to have sufficient technical capacity to be able to store grain in a temperature-controlled manner that corresponds with the “green grain storage” development direction so that the government can achieve this type of storage and national food security can be guaranteed at a higher level.

How are requirements related to the classified management of government reserves implemented?

PHLM & Food Systems

Article 3 of China's “Administrative Measures for the Storage of Government Grain Reserves” (“Measures”) states: “The directly affiliated enterprises of China Grain Reserves Group (Sinograin) are specialized in storing central government reserves, and shall not entrust storage facilities or lease storage facilities of other organizations to store central government reserves. The organizations of local government reserves shall be specified by local governments according to the ownership of grain affairs.”

Article 9 of the “Measures” stipulates: “The government reserves storage organizations shall implement classified management. They shall meet the requirements laid out herein. The specific requirements of the local reserve storage organizations shall be formulated by provincial-level food and strategic reserves  departments  based on local conditions.”

The spirit of grain reserve system reform and the standards pertaining to the management of different categories of government reserves should be adhered to. First of all, it is reflected in the classification management of the reserve undertaking organization: the central government reserves are stored by Sinograin and its subsidiaries; The local government's reserve undertaking organization shall be specified by each locality in accordance with the ownership of grain authority. Secondly, it is reflected in the classification management of the storage conditions:

The central government reserve undertaking enterprises shall meet the requirements stipulated in Chapter II of the Measures; The specific requirements of the local government reserve undertaking enterprises are authorized to be formulated by provincial-level food and strategic reserve departments based on local conditions.

How does China promote poverty alleviation with industrialization?

Innovative Poverty Alleviation Initiative

Promoting poverty alleviation with industrialization refers to helping impoverished farmers adjust their production structure and increase their income by establishing agricultural product bases or encouraging made-to-order farming.

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